Artificial intelligence’s transformative power is already evident across many industries. While the complexity of healthcare data lends itself to AI technologies, the need to treat patient data with the utmost care means that our industry has, rightfully, been one of the most cautious adopters.
Nonetheless, as the appropriate governance structures have evolved around data privacy, artificial intelligence is increasingly being applied to the analysis of real-world big data sets. Stakeholders can now identify abstract patterns in the data which may form the foundations for a variety of commercial products and services, including precision medicine and value based reimbursement.
Patient-level records trace a complete story of a patient’s health, wellness, diagnosis, treatments, medical procedures and outcomes, and are highly valued by the key stakeholders in the health care ecosystem including health care providers, pharmaceutical companies and medical device manufacturers.
RAIR's data lake will help clinical researchers and other stakeholders to develop insights which will support the development of products, services and pathways across the entire breadth of opportunities in ophthalmology and in those indications which manifest in the eye.
The number of people with diabetes, worldwide was 422 million in 2014 including c.3.5m people in the UK and 9.4% of the US population. Vision threatening retinopathy occurs in up to 7% of diabetics. Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is already the leading cause of vision loss in working age adults.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in adults over 50 years old affecting over 170 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to 288 million by the year 2040. The "wet" form of the disease (10-15% of individuals) accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of severe vision loss.
Each year, over 16 million people worldwide suffer an occlusion of the venous system which serves the retina. It is the second leading cause of visual loss, behind DMO. Branch occlusions in the distal retinal venous system (BRVO) are most common (c. 85% of patients) but less serious than those which impact the central retinal vein, close to the optic nerve.
Open angle glaucoma is the second leading cause of global irreversible blindness behind AMD. It is estimated that the total number of cases is approaching 76 million worldwide, including c.480,000 in the UK and 2.7m in the US. It is thought that open angle glaucoma is responsible for approximately 5.2 million cases of blindness (15% of the total).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is closely association with several eye disorders including DMO and glaucoma. It has proven possible to detect the early signs of CVD in images of the retinal vasculature. CVDs are the leading cause of death globally with an estimated 18 million deaths in each year representing over 30% of all global deaths. Of these 85% are due to heart attack and stroke.
The eye remains the only place where the vasculature and nervous system can be examined directly, providing a unique diagnostic window into the broader health of an individual: A multitude of different disorders spanning cardiology, neurology, rheumatology and others, have already been shown to manifest themselves in the structures of the eye.
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